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Mixed Methods Research

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By Hyeyung Park April 14, 2024 - 1:01pm

The term paradigm is a way of looking at or researching phenomena, a worldview, a view of what counts as accepted or correct scientific knowledge (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 8). Pragmatism is defined in the following:

A worldview or philosophy that arises out of actions, situations, and consequences rather than antecedent conditions. It concerns applications, such as what works and solutions to problems. Instead of focusing on methods, researchers emphasize the research problem and use all available approaches to understand it. (Creswell & Creswell, 2018, p. 249).

Pragmatism is firmly rooted in mixed methods research. Mixed methods research (MMR) is an approach that combines qualitative and quantitative forms of research. It involves philosophical assumptions, using qualitative and quantitative approaches, and mixing or integrating both approaches in a study (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Pragmatism is applied to any philosophies and realities by allowing researchers to choose any methods, techniques, and procedures that best meet the needs and purposes of research. The pragmatist researchers focus on what and how to research based on the intended outcomes and believe that the external world is independent of the mind and rooted in it.

MMR is a comprehensive approach to the phenomenon by increasing data analysis accuracy and reliability through triangulation (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 33). Nuances and authenticity can even be provided through MMR, addressing the complexity of phenomena in research. Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) view mixed methods research as a viable solution for combining qualitative and quantitative research. Furthermore, mixed methods research takes a pragmatic position, making spaces for communication among researchers from different paradigms and allowing them to advance knowledge and theories. Pragmatism supports the MMR approach to productively integrate different methods by providing the best opportunity to answer research questions (Hoshmand, 2003).

A convergent mixed method is a form of mixed methods design in which the researcher combines quantitative and qualitative data to analyze the research problem comprehensively. The researcher collects both forms of data, analyzes, and integrates the information to interpret the overall results (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). 

MMR study should include both quantitative and qualitative questions. The research questions directly address integrating quantitative and qualitative research (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The mixed methods questions focus on the intent of mixing quantitative and qualitative data.


Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. Ballantine.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research methods in education (8th ed.). Routledge.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Sage.

 Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. (2nd ed.). Sage.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2018). The Sage handbook of qualitative research (5th ed.). Sage Publications Ltd.

Hoshmand, L. T. (2003). Can lessons of history and logical analysis ensure progress in psychological science? Theory & Psychology, 13(1), 39–44.

Johnson, R.B., & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33, 14-26.

Kaushik, V., & Walsh, C.A. (2019). Pragmatism as a research paradigm and its implications for social work research. Social sciences. 8(9), 255.