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SCIE 326 - Unit 9 Notes

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By Xing Li July 17, 2019 - 11:46am

(net time : 125 min)

Unit 9

3 principles: non-contradiction, sufficient reason(everything has a reason: logically, empirically, optimally), identity of indiscernible (depending on the hierarchy level of categories)

4 polarities: (in cycle)

Approach to systems

Inference method

Reasoning process

Form of explanation

Top-down

Deduction

Analysis

Functional

Bottom-up

Induction/ Abduction

Synthesis

Structural

 

3 Aristotelian logic laws: identity, contradiction, excluded middle; foundation of truth table

deductive(syllogism), inductive (major <->conclusion), abductive(minor<->conclusion)

 

Distribution of terms in categorical propositions

 

Affirmative

Negative

Universal

SS is distributed PP is undistributed

SS is distributed PP is distributed

Particular

SS is undistributed PP is undistributed

SS is undistributed PP is distributed

Figure 9.2.1 (A = UA, E=UN, I=PA, O=PN)

 

 

contradictory(P vs Not P), contrary(All vs None)

subcontrary (Some are vs Some aren’t), subalternation (all vs some, none vs some aren’t)

Table 9.2.3

 

each row is logically equivalent

Table 9.2.4

 

Table 9.2.5

 

6 general rules of syllogisms

fallacy of equivocation (four terms), undistributed middle, illicit major/minor, exclusive premises (two negative premises), negative -> negative

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