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Sample "critical reception" form of annotated bibliography writing: Revision

Last updated October 25, 2013 - 11:34am by Mark A. McCutcheon

[This page reproduces a reception history form of annotated bibliography produced for a graduate course on Canadian literature in 2002, reprinted for consultation here as a sample of this genre of academic writing. A reception history reviews as many secondary sources as can be found about a given text, identifies which ones are the most authoritative and important in influencing how the text has been understood by readers and circulated by institutions like publishing and schools (e.g. in being assigned for courses), and takes note of recurring concerns, questions, and themes in the body of literature on the text. In this way, a reception history analyzes how a text has been canonized: how it has come to have been made an important work of literature according to the reviews, criticism, and scholarship written about it.]

The Critical Reception of Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here

 Analytical Preface | Works Consulted | Other Works Consulted

The canon is never other than an imaginary list ... In this context, the distinction between the canonical and the noncanonical can be seen not as the form in which judgments are actually made about individual works, but as an effect of the syllabus as an institutional instrument. (Guillory 30)

In search of "literate criticism" on the writings of Dionne Brand, Claire Harris and Marlene Nourbese Philip, George Elliot Clarke published a paper (not in a Canadian journal, but one in the exponentially larger American research market [179]) on the literature on the literature of these three authors that blasted it as mere "applau[se for] a coming to voice of writers from ex-centric locations" (179) in the service of a liberal-pluralist "panacea politics" (163).

Clarke's critique of insufficiently critical criticism provides a useful frame of reference for what follows here, an attempt to critique the mediascape (Appadurai 33) of reviews, interviews, news and academic views on In Another Place, Not Here. Following John Guillory's critique of "the politics of canon formation" (5) that focuses on "the distribution of cultural goods rather than of the representation of cultural images" (18) according to "the systemic effects of the educational system in the determination of who writes and who reads, as well as what gets read, and in what contexts" (19), I hope to show how this mediascape thickens around university culture to establish for the novel a provisional, problematic canonicity in the nationalist discourse of "Can Lit" (Rengger 24; Dickinson 163) -- a canonicity supported by the international culture industry whose products "project capitalism as a value, as a culture" (Pennee, "Culture" 204).

As Donna Pennee notes, the canonization of "Can Lit" operates in magazines like Maclean's (cf. Nurse, "Poetry") and similar organs of Canada's "state-sponsored, institutionally mediated culture" (Interview). In the case of In Another Place, Knopf's aggressive brand strategy (the pun is bad but intended) leverages the newspaper and book-trade journal articles that herald and follow it to cut the ground for the novel's canonicity. The success of Knopf's promotional campaign is evinced elsewhere by the myriad trade journal and newspaper articles for which the "New Face of Fiction" campaign is more of a story than the works launched under its brand (cf. Adilman; Elash, "Grant"; Rengger; Tihanyi, "First"). Lorna Jackson's review notes that the "New Face of Fiction" promotional campaign with which In Another Place was launched "marked" Brand as "Canada's young Toni Morrison; skeptical of this hype's "unrealistic promise", Jackson claims Brand for "CanLit" nationalism by placing her in the company of "Gail Scott and Michael Ondaatje" (26). In light of Barbara Godard's observation that Brand's fiction is "published now by American-controlled Knopf rather than by the Canadian-controlled little presses that supported her poetry" (227), the comparison to Toni Morrison and the lavish promotional project as a whole become telling symptoms of the transformations wrought in the contemporary Canadian book market by transnational media mergers (Godard 227) and the "branch plants" (Archer 19) of American publishers. (In all fairness, Brand has previously drawn the comparison to Morrison herself [Daurio 35].) For Barbara Godard, who applies Pennee's Canadian policy research to Canadian literary criticism, Brand's fiction becomes a representative case study in the Canadian "cultural field", in which it exemplifies the postwar transformation of this field from "a countervailing force to industry" to "a counterforce to democracy" (211).

Regarding the interaction between the transnational financescape (Appadurai 33) that supported the novel's publication and the mediascape promoting it, Peter Dickinson's Here is Queer suggests that

[I]t is perhaps no accident ... that the long overdue material recognition of Brand's work coincided with her own recent accession to two of the more 'establishment' publishing houses in this country. In Another Place, Not Here, published by Knopf Canada, was shortlisted for the 1996 Chapters / Books in Canada First Novel Award" (217).

Unlike Dickinson, many reviewers also mention the novel's Trillium Award shortlisting (cf. Garvie; Methot), as does the publisher, whose current online profile of Brand as a "New Face of Fiction 1996" alumnus refers first to the awards, then to the novel's export, in one breathless sentence. Interestingly, two of the First Novel Award's judges ruled against Brand's novel for its "opacity" (Ayre et al. 2); despite Brand's repeated articulation that she writes for black readers (Daurio 35), John Ayre, feeling excluded from "the faithful" for whom Brand's "Black Power rhetoric" is "coded", claims that she "seems to want to exclude the reader" (2).

Whereas Godard briefly notes the irony in Brand's contract with Knopf, Michael Thorpe excoriates her for it -- and for her government support:

Brand's "anointment" by a major publisher, for a novel whose writing was subsidized by a grant from the Ontario Arts Council, central to that "culture ... organized around 'whiteness,'" must be bittersweet. Is it in Brand's eyes a form of appropriation she has turned to advantage? (447)

Like Godard and Dickinson, Thorpe calls attention to the financescape that enabled the novel's production; unlike them, he does so in order to devalue Brand's cultural capital. Concluding that "[t]here is no white world, there is no white ethic, any more than there is a white intelligence" (447), Thorpe's review of Brand's "relentless" novel is symptomatic of the pervasive recurrence of what Clarke calls the "black stereotype" of "Brand's 'anger'" (183).

"Black anger" is a stereotype that Brand is all too familiar with in reviews of her work. Dickinson quotes Brand's interview with Beverly Daurio:

"Reviews are equally racist. ... things you look for in a review are words like 'anger.' Reviewers always talk about the anger of Black writers" (14). Thus ... we find Joan Thomas, in the Globe and Mail, praising Brand's "apparently effortless facility with language" but reacting against the "bitter tone" ... laments Thomas of the book's ending, "anger is the end of the road (C10)". (163)

This stereotype surfaces as "rage" in Sandra Martin's Toronto Life article (70), and as a stylistic staple for Donna Nurse, who describes Brand's prose as "strident" ("Poetry" 54) and, a year later, makes a more canny reference to the "durable political signifier" of "the 'angry black'" ("Writer" C1). But it is perhaps Victor Ramraj's reference to Brand's "angry protest-writing" in the revised Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (172) that is most disturbing, given this book's favourable reception (Lahey 22) and export value as a representative guide to Canadian literature for international library reference shelves.

Dickinson fails to note the irony that the Thomas review he quotes not only typifies racist review writing but provides an exploitable blurb for the paperback edition's flyleaf. However, these blurbs also smack of racism: as a catalogue of exoticized markers of ethnic or racial visibility, the blurbs complement the "black anger" stereotype with that which fetishizes black sensuality (Klefe 153-4). Martin (71) and Gabrielle Collu's flyleaf-quoted Gazette review (H2) play the sensual card; Steinberg's Publishers Weekly review unimaginatively uses "sensuous" twice, to describe the novel and its descriptions.

As shown by the responses of Clarke, Dickinson, Godard and Srebrnik (173-4) to the reception of In Another Place, scholarship consolidates the novel's "Can Lit" canonicicity across a spectrum of published and pedagogical work. Unfortunately, the majority of this work amplifies the "thuggish cheerleading" (Clarke 174) of a "politics of theory" (Scott, quoted in Godard 231) against which Clarke rails (cf. Bramble; Georgis; Quigley "Desiring"; Van Nie; Walcott).

A number of these cheerleaders also exhibit the stylistic sycophancy with which a great many reviewers and scholars alike appropriate Brand's poetics for literary criticism (cf. Klefe; McCutcheon; Mukherjee 102; Smyth 151; Walcott, Black 100-01). Brand's fiction provides Godard with stylistic and theoretical tools for making her argument. Like McCutcheon's reading of Brand's liquid imagery, Godard's adaptations of Brand's cartographic tropes (210, 241) exemplifies this sycophantic critical idiom.

In contextualizing Brand's novel according to the international culture "economy" (211), Godard's essay is one of the relatively few scholarly contributions that respond to Clarke's call for more materialist critiques of "the histor[y] of [its] textual production" (179). Whereas Clarke only gestures toward such work, arguing that Brand's writing is concerned with (among other things) "the nation's peculiar and intractable problems related to book publication, distribution, marketing and sales across its empire-sized geography" (164), it is McCallum and Olbey's paper that I think sets a high bar for future research of this kind.

Several critics adopt a more traditionally intertextual approach to invest in Brand's work a canonical value beyond that of "Can Lit". While George Elliot Clarke compares Brand's poetic prose to that of Ondaatje and Gallant ("Poet" B2), he also finds in her novel "a Nerudian emphasis on the elemental metaphor" ("Harris" 185). Austin Clarke compares Brand's novel to the works of Amos Tutuola and Sam Selvon (J14). Martin quotes J. Edward Chamberlin, Brand's friend and editor, who puts her in the company of "Dante, Chaucer and Wordsworth" (70). Chamberlin's remark lends some historic specificity to the declaration made by virtually all reviewers that In Another Place is "a poet's novel" (Ramraj D15). While in keeping with Brand's own consistent self-identification (Tihanyi, "Unredeemed" 8), the designation, in its ubiquity, begins to look like a coded warning that lets Stephen King fans steer clear -- and lets the reviewer save face before the Canadian culture brokers.

In its frequency, the trope of the "poet's novel" is to the newspaper or trade review what the spectre of Frye is to Canadian scholarship: familiar with "the question Northrop Frye thought quintessentially Canadian, "Where is here?" (Jones 28), several Canadian literary scholars read Brand's novel as a rejoinder to this question (cf. Dickinson 163; Godard 211), reinforcing the paradoxical "Canadianness" of the author's diasporic internationality (Srebrnik 172). Where, indeed: several recent British- and American-published scholarly surveys of Caribbean fiction mention Brand only in passing, yet manage to prioritize her Trinidadian heritage over her Torontonian literary career (cf. Booker 22; Conde 5; James 207) -- despite Stoffman's 1998 report that Brand's "work is unknown there. No Trinidad paper has ever interviewed her."

Sid Adilman's Toronto Star article on Knopf's brand strategy provides an intriguing clue for further critique, in its report on the publisher's release of Canadian sales figures for its "New Faces of Fiction" titles: according to Knopf, In Another Place sold 8 000 copies between its launch in spring 1996 and December 1999 ("Book"). For the Canadian Booksellers' Association, a sale of 5 000 copies in Canada qualifies a book for Canadian bestseller status. Although CBA calculations exclude sales by university bookstores and the Indigo conglomerate, Knopf would not have been obliged to make any such exclusions (Anonymous B). A cursory survey of the university course syllabi (cf. Budde; Chamberlin; Joseph; Srivastava), graduate research (cf. Boiley; Bramble; Quigley, "Desiring"; Van Nie) and learned papers (cf. Dickinson; Smyth; Srebrnik) produced in Canada during this period suggest that universities may have driven and continue to drive (cf. Dawson; Zwicker) a significant portion of the novel's sales. Although here I indulge in speculation, the fact, as of this writing [10 Apr. 2002], that Chapters-Indigo Online has sold only 25 copies of Brand's novel (including one copy of the American edition, illegal for sale by Canadian booksellers) since opening its e-commerce operation in late 1998 (Anonymous A)provides another indicator that the institution of literary criticism "involves ... the power to keep texts in circulation, to keep them current in an economic sense" (Bérubé quoted in Clarke, "Harris" 179).

Of course, this argument is the product of engaging a certain archive. To supplement this supplement, I'd like to mention inconclusion: the responses that don't fit any pattern or genre; the absence of "specialized Canadian review journals for gay and lesbian titles" (Elash, "Ellen" 37); the undiscovered review fragments (readers of the UK socialist daily Morning Star unite!); the foreign Canadian studies work proliferating in languages I can't read (Pennee, Interview); and the unexplored archives of broadcasting companies (although perhaps it's best that we try to forget Ziggy Lorenc butchering Brand's prose aloud on CityTV's "Life on Venus Avenue").

Works Consulted: A working bibliography of the mediascape surrounding Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here

Abbas, Nuzhat. "Dionne's Brand of writing." Herizons 13.3 (Fall 1999): 18-22.

Adilman, Sid. "Anatomy of a four-way first-novel coup." Toronto Star 29 Jun. 1996: L3.

---. "Book campaign causes fiction." Toronto Star 15 Apr. 2000: N. PAG.

Archer, Bert. "The sky won't fall on Canadian literature despite doomsayers." Financial Post 7 Sept. 1996: 19.

Ayre, John, Robert Fulford and Ann Charney. "The Chapters/Books In Canada First Novel Award." Books in Canada 26.5 (Jun. 1997): 2-4.

"Behind the covers." Toronto Star 18 Nov. 1997: N. PAG.

Boiley, Lisette. "Writing Presence/ Righting Absence: Ghostly Bodies and Personal and Political Resistance in Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here and Jamaica Kincaid's The Autobiography of My Mother." Latin America and the Caribbean in a Changing World: Patterns, Prospects, and Problems. Canadian Association for Latin American and Caribbean Studies Congress. Toronto: York U. 1-3 Nov. 1996. 5 Apr. 2002

Booker, M. Keith and Dubravka Juraga. "Introduction: Historical Survey of the Caribbean Novel in English." The Caribbean Novel in English: An Introduction. Eds. Booker, M. Keith and Dubravka Juraga. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2001. 1-24.

Bramble, Maxine. "'That really wasn't me': A black, immigrant, Caribbean woman's attempt to be/long in the academy." Canadian Woman Studies 19.3 (Fall 1999): 134-40.

Budde, Robert. "17.3717 - Contexts in Canadian Literature." Winnipeg: U of Winnipeg, 1997. 6 Apr. 2002

Bush, Catherine. "Anywhere but Here." New York Times Book Review 4 Jan. 1998: 12.

Carter, Dawn. Rev. of Another Place, Not Here [sic]. Women & Environments (Winter 1997): 24.

Chamberlin, J. Edward. "ENG 5995Y: Contemporary West Indian Literature." Toronto: U of Toronto, 1996.

Clarke, Austin. "Brand's first novel tells a sweet and daring tale of Island women." Toronto Star 17 Aug. 1996: J14.

Clarke, George Elliott. "Harris, Philip, Brand: Three Authors in Search of Literate Criticism." Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue d'études canadiennes 35.1 (Printemps 2000 Spring): 161-89.

---. "Poet Dionne pens classic novel of love." Halifax Chronicle-Herald 7 Jun. 1996: B2.

---. "Treason of the Black Intellectuals?" Montreal: McGill U. 5 Apr. 2002.

Connolly, Kevin. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. Paragraph 18.3 (1996/7): 31-2.

Collu, Gabrielle. "Women as allies against the world." Montreal Gazette 1 Jun. 1996: H2.

Condé, Mary. “Introduction.” Caribbean Women Writers. Eds. Mary Condé and Thorunn Lonsdale. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.1-7.

D'Anna, Lynnette. "In conversation with Dionne Brand: Winnipeg, April 1995." Prairie Fire 17.2 (Summer 1996): 9-19.

Dabydeen, Cyril. "Places we come from: voices of Caribbean Canadian writers (in English) and multicultural contexts." World Literature Today 73.2 (Spring 1999): 231-7.

Daurio, Beverley. "Writing It: Dionne Brand." In Beverley Daurio, ed. The Power To Bend Spoons: Interviews with Canadian Novelists. Toronto: Mercury, 1998. 31-41.

Dawson, C. "Canadian Multicultural Fictions: Ethnicity, Race and Reading / English 5996.03B." Halifax: Dalhousie U, 2002. 7 Apr. 2002.

Decter, Ann. "Chick lit." Herizons 13.4 (Mar. 2000): 24-7.

Dickinson, Peter. Here is Queer: Nationalisms, Sexualities, and the Literatures of Canada. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1999.

"Dionne Brand." 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand." NorthWest Passages Canadian Literature Online Author Profiles. 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand, Critical Works About." Canadian Poets, University of Toronto. 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand, New Face of Fiction 1996." Random House Online Catalogue. 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand, Published Works." Canadian Poets, University of Toronto. 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand." Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color. 8 Mar. 2002

"Dionne Brand." writing canada into the millennium: 100 Canadian Poets. University of Calgary. 8 Mar. 2002

Elash, Anita. "The Ellen effect: gay and lesbian publishers find new opportunities and new threats, in a market gone mainstream." Quill & Quire 63.7 (Jul. 1997): 37-8.

---. "Grant-slashing reshapes lists: belle lettres vs. bottom line? No contest." Quill & Quire 62.1 (Jan. 1996): 10, 12.

Foster, Cecil. "Vitality thrives among artists." Toronto Star 2 Jun. 1997: A17.

Garvie, Maureen. Rev. of At the Full and Change of the Moon. Quill & Quire 65.4 (Apr. 1999): 27.

Georgis, Dina. "Mother Nations and the Persistence of "Not Here." Canadian Woman Studies 20.2 (Summer 2000): 27-34.

Godard, Barbara. "Notes from the cultural field: Canadian literature from identity to hybridity." Essays on Canadian Writing 72 (Winter 2000): 209-47.

Gunter, Jenn. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. 1 Apr. 2001. 8 Mar. 2002.

Harris, Dorothy. “In Another Place, Not Here.” Mosaic 1.2 (Summer 1998): 28.

Hartley, Michelle. "Beckoned to Flight: Resistant Ambivalence in Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here." Canadian Literature session. ACCUTE Conference 2000. U of Alberta, Edmonton. 26 May 2000. 5 Apr. 2002.

Hepburn, Allan. "First novel teems with the language of love and loss." Financial Post 90.33 (17- 19 Aug. 1996): 22.

---. "Novels in English 1983 to 1996: Other novels 3." Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (Second Edition). Ed. William Toye. Oxford UP, 1997. 849-50.

Hunter, Catherine. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. Prairie Fire 17.4 (1997): 103-4.

In Another Place, Not Here product record. Powell's Books. 8 Mar. 2002

In Another Place, Not Here product record. Random House Online Catalogue. 8 Mar. 2002

Infantry, Ashante. "The voice behind a novel full of sound." Toronto Star 26 May 1996: F6.

Jackson, Lorna. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. Quill & Quire 62.5 (1996): 26.

James, Cynthia. "Gender and Hemispheric Shifts in the Caribbean Narrative in English At the Close of the 20th Century: A Study of Paule Marshall's Daughters and Erna Brodber's Louisiana." Jouvert 5.3 (Summer 2001). 5 Apr. 2002.

James, Louis. Caribbean Literature in English. Harlow, Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999.

Jones, Manina. "Letters in Canada: 1996 Fiction." University of Toronto Quarterly 67.1 (Winter 1997/98): 21-49.

Joseph, Clara. "EN3440 6.0A Postcolonial Writing in Canada." Toronto: York U, 2000. 9 Apr. 2002

"Judges: Dionne Brand." The Griffin Poetry Prize. 8 Mar. 2002

Julian, Ria. “Imaginary Spaces.” Atlantis 24.1 (1999): 135-37.

Klefe, Carola. “Dionne Brand and the Sexualisation of Black Women in In Another Place, Not Here.” Zeitschrift für Kanada-Studien Online 1.37 (2000). 5 Apr. 2002

Knowles, Roberta Q. “A Haunted Legacy.” The Caribbean Writer 15 (2001): 206-8.

Lahey, Anita. "A formidable friend: 350 categories added to Oxford's Canadian Companion." Quill & Quire 63.6 (Jun. 1997): 22.

Martin, Sandra. "Being Dionne." Toronto Life 31.4 (Mar. 1997): 68-71.

McCallum, Pamela and Christian Olbey. "Written in the Scars: History, Genre, and Materiality in Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here." Essays in Canadian Writing 68 (Summer 1999): 159-82.

McCutcheon, Mark. "'She skin black as water': The Movement of liquid imagery in Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here." Post Identity 3.2 (Winter 2002): 133-52

Methot, Suzanne. "She's a wanderer: Dionne Brand has returned home to Toronto with a new novel, and a new outlook." Quill & Quire 65.4 (Apr. 1999): 1, 16.

Monifa, Akilah. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. African American Literature Book Club Oct. 1997. 8 Mar. 2002

Mukherjee, Arun. "No easy solutions." Toronto Review of Contemporary Writing Abroad 15.2 (Winter 1997): 102-6.

"The New Face of Fiction: Dionne Brand, New Face of Fiction 1996." Random House Online. 8 Mar. 2002

Nurse, Donna Bailey. "The poetry of the downtrodden." Maclean's, Toronto edition, 109.26 (24 Jun. 1996): 54.

---. "Writer packs poetic punch." Globe & Mail 29 Apr. 1997: C1-2.

"Paperback picks." Toronto Star 3 May 1997: K19.

Pennee, Donna. "ENGL*6003/DRMA*6140: Cultural Nationalisms in the Time and Space of Globalization: Problems in Literary Analysis." Guelph: U of Guelph, 2002.

Primeau, Joan. "Tonight in T.O." Toronto Star 21 May 1996: E6.

---. "This weekend in T.O." Toronto Star 18 Apr. 1997: C10.

---. "Tonight in T.O." Toronto Star 30 Sept. 1997: E7.

Quigley, Margaret Ellen. Desiring intersubjects: Lesbian poststructuralism in writing by Nicole Brossard, Daphne Marlatt, and Dionne Brand. Diss. U of Alberta, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2001. AAT NQ60017.

---. "Picking the Deadlock of Imperialist Legitimacy with Dionne Brand's In Another Place, Not Here." Articulating Multiculturalism: Canadian and Commonwealth Literatures in the 21st Century. Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities 2001. Quebec City: U Laval. 26 May 2001. 4 Apr. 2002.

Ramraj, Ruby. "Dionne Brand's first novel is Passionate & Sensitive." Calgary Herald 8 Jun. 1996: D15.

Ramraj, Victor. "Caribbean-Canadian literature in English." Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (Second Edition). Ed. William Toye. Oxford UP, 1997. 172-3.

Rengger, Patrick. "Doin' the CanLit hustle: summer reading." Financial Post 90.22 (1-3 Jun. 1996): 24-5.

Renzetti, Elizabeth. "First-time authors vie for literary laurel." Globe & Mail 1 Apr. 1997: C2.

Rose, Marilyn. "Brand, Dionne." Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (Second Edition). Ed. William Toye. Oxford UP, 1997. 138.

Sanders, Leslie and Rinaldo Walcott. “At the Full and Change of CanLit: An Interview With Dionne Brand.” Canadian Woman Studies 20.2 (2000): 22-26.

Smyth, Heather. "Sexual Citizenship and Caribbean-Canadian Fiction: Dionne Brand's 'In Another Place, Not Here' and Shani Mootoo's 'Cereus Blooms at Night'." Ariel 30.2 (Apr. 1999): 141-60.

Srebrnik, Patricia. "'The Meaning of a' island': Paradoxical Space in Writing by Authors from the Caribbean." Message in a bottle: the literature of small islands. Proceedings from an international conference, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, June 28 to 30, 1998. Eds. Laurie Brinklow, Frank Ledwell, and Jane Ledwell. Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies, 2000. 159-76.

Srivastava, Aruna. "English 492.01: Studies in International Literature." Calgary: U of Calgary, 1998. 7 Apr. 2002

Steinberg, Sybil. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. Publishers Weekly 11 Aug. 1997. N. PAG.

Stoffman, Judy. "Poetry collection wins major provincial prize." Toronto Star 3 Apr. 1998: N. PAG.

Teasley, Lisa. Rev. of In Another Place, Not Here. Washington Post Book World 1 Feb. 1998: 6.

Thomas, Clara. Rev. of The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, 2nd edition. Books in Canada 27.3 (Apr. 1998): 3-4.

Thomas, Joan. “Poetry fires hot Brand novel.” Globe & Mail 29 Jun. 1996: C20.

Thorpe, Michael. "In Another Place Not Here." World Literature Today 71:2 (Spring 1997): 446- 8.

Tihanyi, Eva. "First Novels: The Knopf Four." Books in Canada 25.6 (Sept. 1996): 36-7.

---. "Unredeemed grace: Eva Tihanyi speaks with Dionne Brand." Books in Canada 26.2 (Mar. 1997): 8-9.

"The Trinidad-Online Local Fiction Bookstore." 8 Mar. 2002

Van Nie, Miriam. "Writing/righting the body queerly intelligible: Reading a black lesbian feminist politics in Dionne Brand." Thesis. Queen's U, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2001. AAT MQ53031.

Walcott, Rinaldo. "'A Tough Geography': Towards a Poetics of Black Space(s) in Canada." West Coast Line 31.1 (Spring/Summer 1997): 38-51.

---. Black Like Who? Writing Black Canada. Toronto: Insomniac, 1997.

Zwicker, Heather. "English 674: Postcolonial Literature in English." Edmonton: U of Alberta, 2001. 9 Apr. 2002

Other Works Cited

[Anonymous A]. Personal interview. Toronto: Chapters Indigo Online, 8 Apr. 2002.

[Anonymous B]. Personal interview. Toronto: Bowker Books In Print Canada, 9 Apr. 2002.

Appadurai, Arjun. "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Economy." Public Culture 2.2 (1990): 1-24. Revised & Rpt. in Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1996.

John Guillory, Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary Canon Formation. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.

Pennee, Donna. "Culture as Security: Canadian Foreign Policy and International Relations from the Cold War to the Market Wars." International Journal of Canadian Studies 20 (Fall 1999): 191-213.

---. Personal interview. Guelph: U of Guelph, 3 Apr. 2002.