Landing : Athabascau University

ENVS461 blog 8 unit 7 Gender, enclosure, and subsistence

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By Chaoran Chen July 25, 2023 - 3:15am
ENVS461 blog 8 unit 7 Gender, enclosure, and subsistence

     Rauna Kuokkanen argues that the importance of the traditional economies of indigenous communities extends beyond the economic sphere.Rauna Kuokkanen also argues that it is incorrect to suggest that indigenous or subsistence economies are no longer capable of sustaining indigenous communities, and that, in the context of the global market economy, indigenous communities are facing increasing pressures to move away from subsistence economic activities and towards other forms of production. (Rauna Kuokkanen, 2011)Rauna Kuokkanen also argues that indigenous communities are not able to sustain themselves in the global market economy, and that the pressure to move away from subsistence economic activities and towards other forms of production is increasing. Aboriginal women had become particularly vulnerable in the context of the global market economy and had had to migrate elsewhere to work in low-wage jobs and endure poverty. In addition, Rauna Kuokkanen argued that indigenous economies, such as household production and subsistence activities, went far beyond the economic sphere: they were at the heart of people's cultures and societies, and it was important to emphasize the living conditions and economic status of Aboriginal people. Aboriginal subsistence economies often coexisted with market economies, eventually combining to form mixed economies, and despite the fact that subsistence economies had difficulty meeting the various needs of Aboriginal life, they nevertheless exerted a great deal of influence in Aboriginal communities.(Rauna Kuokkanen, 2011)
     The tragedy of the commons is what happens when people act for their own benefit with unrestricted access to the commons, which ultimately results in the depletion of the resource. Rubinoff argues that citizens seeking consumer satisfaction will often turn a blind eye to the willingness of politicians to sacrifice environmental and ethical standards to protect their political agendas, and ultimately compromises will be rationalized in the name of the public good, yet the promised benefits will often be enjoyed by corporate elites or politicians to the detriment of often ordinary citizens.(Rubinoff,1997)When it becomes clear to people that they are bearing the cost of soliciting benefits for politicians or the elite class in their public participation, they try to resist the promotion of political agendas, but unfortunately people are consistently thwarted on their way to knowing the truth.(Rubinoff,1997)Addressing the phenomenon of the "tragedy of the commons" was crucial, as it could help people to seek genuine well-being and protect their own interests.
      The concept of the tragedy of the commons in this module and the concept of "property" in module 2 belong to the field of economics. The difference is that the tragedy of the commons is about people's unrestricted use of public resources for their own benefit and without regard for the benefit of others, which eventually leads to depletion, whereas property refers to people's ownership of objects. In addition, people have a sense of responsibility and identity with property and a strong belief in the protection of private property, whereas the tragedy of the commons is the opposite.
    Streets, forests, and lakes are all examples of current commons. I've heard about activities to protect the environment, but I haven't participated in them, such as picking up trash in the forest or cleaning up the streets. Creating a sense of identity and responsibility for the environment or the city is an effective measure to avoid the tragedy of the commons.


Rauna Kuokkanen. (2011). Indigenous economies, theories of subsistence, and women: <em>exploring the social economy model for indigenous governance</em>. American Indian Quarterly, 35(2), 215.

Rubinoff, Lionel. (1997). Politics, ethics, and ecology: Confronting the tragedy of the commons . In A. Wellington, A. Greenbaum, & W. Cragg (Eds.), Canadian issues in environmental ethics (pp. 133–152). Broadview Press.