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COMP 361 - Week 2 Notes

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By Xing Li May 8, 2019 - 11:58am

Unit 2 Approaches

 (Net Time: 154 min)

Section 1 General approaches

Predictive SDLC: for building systems well understood and defined

7 phases: 6+support (maintain/enhance system + support users with help desk to keep the system running productively, p232)

Waterfall model: rigid, change only allowed within each phase; overlap to be more flexible

Adaptive SDLC:

no support phase, but separate project

commonality: Iteration for the first 5~6 phases with modification

extreme and the earliest: Spiral model (sketch it)

basis: Unified Process (UP) is formal approach

variation: incremental development

System development methodology: a set of comprehensive guidelines for the SDLC that includes specific models, tools, and techniques

                models: UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagram (p235 F8-9)


Techniques: (manual) (P235 F8-10)


Tools: (automated) (P236 F8-11)



Two Approaches to Software Construction and Modeling

The Structured Approach: 3 techniques-structured analysis, design, programming; 3 diagrams-structure chart, data flow, entity relationship,

The Object-Oriented Approach: based on the view that a system is a set of interacting objects that work together, OOP technique?

Agile development: a guiding philosophy and set of guidelines for developing information

systems in an unknown, rapidly changing environment

                4 values: respond to change, individual and interaction, working software, customer collaboration

Agile modeling: a guiding philosophy in which only models that are necessary, with a valid need and at the right level of detail, are created.

11 principles (P245 F8-21)


Section 2 Project Management

6 reasons to fail:

Undefined project management practices

Poor IT management and poor IT procedures

Inadequate executive support for the project

Inexperienced project managers

Unclear business needs and project objectives

Inadequate user involvement


Project Management: organizing and directing other people to achieve a planned result within a predetermined schedule and budget

5 responsibilities:

Developing the project schedule

Recruiting and training team members

Assigning work to teams and team members

Assessing project risks

Monitoring and controlling project deliverables and milestones

Client (funding) vs User (using)

Organic approach?

Ceremony: documentation, traceability, formality


PMBOK: scope, time, cost, quality, HR, communication, risk, procurement, integration.


Agile management: a way of balancing these two conflicting requirements: how to be agile and flexible while maintaining control of the project schedule, budget, and deliverables.

                scope management: prioritized business requirements, assign to iterations, user/project team provide inputs and client make decision to stop at any time.



Core Process 1: initiation

                3 reason: to respond to an opportunity, to resolve a problem, to respond to an external directive.

                4 activities:

Identify the problem.

                system capabilities to support business benefits

Quantify project approval factors.

                time, cost, result(benefits); more important to monitor

9 types of benefits: (p267)


net present value: benefits and cost netted together, discount factor to convert future value

intangible: can’t be measured


Perform risk and feasibility analysis.


Substantial computer phobia

A perceived loss of control on the part of staff or management

Potential shifting of political and organizational power due to the new system

Fear of change of job responsibilities

Fear of loss of employment due to increased automation

Reversal of long-standing work procedures


Review with the client and obtain approval.

Core Process 2: planning

                5 activities:        

Establish the project environment.

                7 types of info: plan/schedule/report, analysis, decision/spec, screen/report spec, test cases/procedures/results, problems and issues with resolutions, program code

Schedule the work.

                project iteration schedule: use cases assigned to iterations

                detail work schedule: tasks dependency

                work breakdown structure: used to estimate and create a detail work schedule

Allocate staff and resources.

Evaluate work processes.

                retrospective to improve

Monitor progress and make corrections.


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