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SCIE 326 - Unit 6 Notes

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By Xing Li June 18, 2019 - 11:25am

Unit 6

(net time : 151 min)

scientific statement:

Provide an explanation or causal mechanism of a naturally occurring phenomenon

Generate predictions that are testable via observations that are replicable and natural


rationalism: reason, coherent

empiricism: experience, correspondent

logical positivism: empiricism + math logic – how science is built: reason + experience

operationalism: scientific concepts must be defined operationally

falseficationism: can only falsify, not prove; not universal principle– weed out statements which have no observable consequences

relativism: knowledge exist in relation to context or premise – no absolute truth or scientific knowledge

                                facts are theory-laden – no false thesis, but false system

realism: describe real, truth with accuracy – purpose of science

reductionism: particular -> general

emergence: part -> whole


3 knowledge

episteme: fitting in conceptual framework

tekhné: know how

gnosis: intuitive/insight


3 fundamental metaphysical assumption

Nature is ordered.

This order is comprehensible to human reason.

Our understanding of this order can be communicated without subjective bias.


scientific judgement: empirical(correspondence), rational(coherence), social

good theory: explanatory, simple, fertile, predictive

Gorgias skepticism: know nothing; Pyrrhonian skepticism: suspend judgement-> inductive attitude

Kuhn’s scientific revolution: paradigm-> too much inconsistency->revolution->new paradigm


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